Today, July 21, 2018, is Tisha B’Av (the 9th of Av) on the Jewish calendar. I first wrote about it in a blog post titled “Tisha B’Av and 9/11” on July 29, 2012, and I subsequently reposted that blog post in 2013, 2014, 2015, and last year in 2017; Tisha B’Av is the major day of communal mourning and fasting on the Jewish calendar. First and foremost Tisha B’Av commemorates the destruction of both the first and second temples in Jerusalem (586 B.C.E, and 70 C.E respectively), but many other travesties have occurred on that same date (source here).
This year, that actual day of Tisha B’Av falls on Shabbat (the Sabbath) so the fasting period normally held on the 9th of Av will not start until Shabbat is over at sundown today. The fasting period will begin this evening, July 21, 2018, and extend through nightfall tomorrow, July 22, 2018.
The following brief description of Tisha B’Av comes from HolidaysCalendar.com:
Tisha B’av is a Jewish fast day which typically occurs on the ninth day of the month of Av – or if that happens to be the Shabbat – on the tenth day of Av. It is used to commemorate the five calamities that befell the Jewish people. On the Western calendar, this fasting day occurs either in July or August.
The five calamities that inspired this fast day – as stated by the Mishnah – include: (1) Punishment of the Israelites by God because they didn’t have faith in the promised land, (2) Destruction of King Solomon’s Temple in 587 BCE by the Babylonians, (3) Destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans in 70 CE, (4) Destruction of the city of Betar and the subsequent death of over a half million Jews and (5) Plowing of the site of the temple by Turnus Rufus in 135 AD.
There are five prohibitions that are generally followed on Tisha B’av. These include : (1) No food or drink, (2) no marital relations, (3) no bathing, (4) no wearing of leather shoes, and (5) no application of oils or creams. While these are the five main prohibitions of this day, there are other customs that are also usually followed on this day. This includes avoiding work as much as possible, turning off or dimming electric lights and/or using candles for the primary light, sleeping on the floor and avoiding giving gifts on this day.
This fast day is not only a personal rite of mourning but also a communal remembrance that not only connects a person with their heritage but also to self reflection and piety. (Quote source here.)
The three weeks leading up to Tisha B’Av is actually “a period of mourning commemorating the destruction of the first and second Jewish Temples. The Three Weeks start on the seventeenth day of the Jewish month of Tammuz — the fast of Shiva Asar B’Tammuz — and end on the ninth day of the Jewish month of Av — the fast of Tisha B’Av, which occurs exactly three weeks later. Both of these fasts commemorate events surrounding the destruction of the Jewish Temples and the subsequent exile of the Jews from the land of Israel. According to conventional chronology, the destruction of the first Temple, by Nebuchadnezzar II, occurred in 586 BCE, and the second, by the Romans, in 70 CE.” (Quote source: Wikipedia.) Wikipedia also states:
The Three Weeks are considered historically a time of misfortune, since many tragedies and calamities which befell the Jewish people are attributed to this period. These tragedies include: the breaking of the Tablets of the Law by Moses, when he saw the people worshipping the golden calf; the burning of a Sefer Torah by Apostomus during the Second Temple era; the destruction of both Temples on Tisha B’Av; the expulsion of the Jews from Spain shortly before Tisha B’Av 1492; and the outbreak of World War I shortly before Tisha B’Av 1914, which overturned many Jewish communities.
As a result, some Jews are particularly careful to avoid all dangerous situations during the Three Weeks. These include: going to dangerous places, striking a child or student, undergoing a major operation that could be postponed until after Tisha B’Av, going on an airplane flight that could be postponed until after Tisha B’Av, and engaging in a court case with a non-Jew if it can be postponed until after Tisha B’Av….
The last nine days of the three weeks—which are also the first nine days of the month of Av, culminating in the Tisha B’Av fast—constitute a period of intensified mourning in the Ashkenazic custom. Many Jewish communities refrain from partaking of poultry, red meat, and wine; from wearing freshly laundered clothes; and from warm baths. Sephardim observe many of these restrictions only from the Sunday before Tisha B’Av, dispensing with them entirely in years when Tisha B’Av falls on a Sunday. Yemenite Jews do not maintain these customs. (Quote source here.)
The following additional information (some events have already been stated above) regarding Tisha B’Av is from GotQuestions.org:
Tisha B’Av is a Jewish fast day commemorating several tragedies the Jewish people have endured, including the destruction of the first and second temples. Av is the fifth month of the Jewish calendar, and Tisha B’Av means “the Ninth of Av.” The day falls in July or August of the Gregorian calendar. Since the first two temples were destroyed on the same calendar day (Av 9), tradition has assigned a gloom to this day—some see it as a day cursed by God because of Israel’s national sins.
Tisha B’Av is the final, climactic day of a 21-day period of increasing mourning called the Three Weeks. The Three Weeks is also called Bein HaMetzarim, or “between the straits,” because Lamentations 1:3 says, “Judah is gone into captivity because of affliction, and because of great servitude: she dwelleth among the heathen, she findeth no rest: all her persecutors overtook her between the straits” (KJV, emphasis added).
The mourning period leading up to Tisha B’Av begins in the previous month, Tammuz 17, a day that commemorates the first breach of Jerusalem’s walls by the Babylonians before they destroyed the first temple. During the Three Weeks, observant Jews refrain from holding public celebrations. No weddings are scheduled during the three weeks leading up to Tisha B’Av. The focus is on mourning and repentance. The final nine days, starting with Av 1, require increased austerity: no wearing of new clothes, no eating of pleasurable foods, and no bathing beyond what is essential.
On the day of Tisha B’Av itself, Jews keep a total fast, sit on the floor, recite prayers of mourning, and read the book of Lamentations. An exception is made when Av 9 falls on the Sabbath—in that case, the fasting and mourning are observed on Av 10.
Over the years the meaning of Tisha B’Av has broadened into a remembrance of Jewish tragedies throughout history, but it remains primarily focused on the destruction of the two temples.
Following Tisha B’Av, the fast is broken, but some of the other restrictions associated with mourning continue until Av 10. Then begin the “Seven Weeks of Comfort,” which continue through the rest of Av and the month of Elul. During this period the focus in the synagogues turns to the glorious future God has promised Israel.
The observance of Tisha B’Av is not commanded in the Bible. Like Purim, Tisha B’Av is a traditional observance based on non-canonical Jewish writings and oral tradition. It’s possible that a Tisha B’Av observance is alluded to in the book of Zechariah. The men of Bethel sent a delegation to the prophets in Jerusalem asking, “Should I mourn and fast in the fifth month, as I have done for so many years?” (Zechariah 7:3). The fifth month is, of course, Av; the “fast” mentioned could have been observed on Av 9. God’s response to the people’s question is key: “When you fasted and mourned in the fifth and seventh months for the past seventy years, was it really for me that you fasted?” (verse 5). As with any religious observance, God is more concerned with one’s motivation and the condition of the heart than He is with the ritual itself. (Quote source here.)
Besides the obvious themes of destruction and mourning associated with Tisha B’Av, there is also another theme–renewal. Chabad.org states:
…There is more to the Three Weeks than fasting and lamentation. The prophet describes the fasts as “days of goodwill before G‑d”-days of opportunity to exploit the failings of the past as the impetus for a renewed and even deeper bond with G‑d. A sense of purification accompanies the fasting, a promise of redemption pervades the mourning, and a current of joy underlies the sadness. The Ninth of Av, say our sages, is not only the day of the Temple’s destruction—it is also the birthday of Moshiach (the Hebrew term for Messiah).
Of course, Christians as well as Messianic Jews believe that the Messiah has already come for the first time in the person of Jesus Christ (Yeshua in Hebrew), and that Jesus will return a second time (as noted in the New Testament Book of Revelation, Chapters 19-22). In the traditional Jewish faith, here is some background information on Moshiach from Chabad.org:
Two of the most fundamental tenets of the Jewish faith – as listed by Maimonides among the Thirteen Principles of the Jewish Faith – are the belief in the ultimate redemption, an awaited era of world peace, prosperity and wisdom, and the belief that the dead will be resurrected at that time.
The Messianic Era will be ushered in by a Jewish leader generally referred to as the Moshiach (messiah: Hebrew for “the anointed one”), a righteous scion of King David. He will rebuild the Holy Temple in Jerusalem and gather the Jewish people from all corners of the earth and return them to the Promised Land.
At that time, “delicacies will be commonplace like dirt.” All the nations will “beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore” (Micah 4:3). Humankind will be preoccupied with only one pursuit: the study of G‑dly wisdom. “The earth shall be filled with knowledge of G‑d as water covers the seabed” (Isaiah 11:9).
Okay, so it’s going to happen—that’s what we believe. But why is this important today? Why is the coming of Moshiach so central to the Jewish belief system?
Because the Torah teaches us that there is purpose to our world. And the Messianic Era is the actualization of that idea.
There are those who maintain that this crass physical world is merely a strategic challenge; one that the soul must battle and transcend en route to a heavenly paradise. According to this line of thinking, the physical and mundane has no intrinsic worth, it retains no value whatsoever once its function has been fully served—it is a means to a spiritual end.
While Jewish belief also speaks of the soul’s reward in the hereafter, earned through its toil in the course of life’s journey, it sees the refinement of the physical and the infusion of holiness and purpose into the mundane as the paramount objective. It is the sanctification of the human body and the world at large that constitutes the very purpose of its creation.
From the dawn of time, G‑d envisioned for Himself a “dwelling place” right here on Planet Earth. And He put us here to fashion this home. To transform darkness into light.
And soon the day will come when G‑d’s glory will be revealed in this nether-realm, and we will enjoy the fruits of our millennia-long work, the end-product of our labor of love.
The curtain will be ripped aside, and all flesh will perceive G‑d. It will be the culmination of the master plan.
The belief in Moshiach has sustained our nation throughout a 2,000 year exile fraught with pogroms, expulsions and persecution—our ancestors’ firm belief in a better time to come, and their trust that they would be resurrected to witness that day. And today, finally, we stand at the threshold of redemption. One more good deed by one more person may be all that’s needed to seal the deal. (Quote source here.)
For more information on “Jesus as Messiah in the Gospels”–the title of an article written by David Brickner, executive director at Jews for Jesus on JewsForJesus.org–click here. Also see “What Do Jews Believe About Jesus?” by the staff at MyJewishLearning.com.
Following Tisha B’Av is “Seven Weeks of Consolation” leading up to Rosh Hashanah–the Jewish New Year. Information on the seven weeks of consolation can be found at this link. For now, I’ll end this blog post with Psalm 30:5—For His anger is but for a moment, His favor is for life . . .
Weeping may endure . . .
For a night, but joy . . .
Comes in the morning . . . .
YouTube Video: Music is not played during the observance of Tisha B’Av; therefore, I have not included a YouTube video on this post.